Safety, of course, is one of the main concern when you travel other countries.
And yes, Philippines may have THE stereotypical image, but it really is the same protocol everywhere.
As long as you don't walk around late at night by yourself, and as long as you are in full control of your self,
then you shouldn't be worried at all.
Cebu has been the destination for many foreigner's vacation or English studies, so locals here are well-aware of foreigners.
They may even talk to you in your own language!
One thing to be careful is though, make sure to keep your belongings safely. But again, that applies to any tourist destinations, so nothing to be overly stressed!
Just remember, as long as you respect and try to mix in with the local culture and lifestyle, they will also treat you right!